It has been established that 5-HT4 receptors are involved in the pathophysiology of IBS-C. These receptors are abundant throughout the gastrointestinal tract and can be bound by serotonin.2,3
Alterations in motility, secretion, and visceral sensation in IBS-C are now thought to involve disruption in signaling by 5-HT, which coordinates the activity of the ENS.2
ZELNORM (tegaserod) is indicated for the treatment of adult women less than 65 years of age with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C).
ZELNORM should be used in females under 65 years of age who do not have a history of ischemic cardiovascular disease and who have no more than one CVD risk factor. CVD risk factors are defined as active smoking, current hypertension/history of antihypertensive treatment, current hyperlipidemia/history of lipid-lowering medication, history of diabetes mellitus, age ≥55 years, or obesity (BMI >30 kg/m2).
ZELNORM is contraindicated in patients with:
Cardiovascular Ischemic Events, Including Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (MACE): Stroke, MI, and cardiovascular death have been reported in adults taking ZELNORM who had an increased risk of developing an adverse cardiovascular event based on their medical history.
Female patients less than 65 years of age should be assessed for a history of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk factors prior to treatment with ZELNORM.
Discontinue ZELNORM in patients who experience an MI, stroke, TIA, or angina. Evaluate the risks and benefits of continued use of ZELNORM in patients who develop evidence of cardiovascular ischemic heart disease (e.g., coronary artery disease) and/or experience changes in health status that could increase cardiovascular risk during treatment with ZELNORM.
Ischemic Colitis: Ischemic colitis and other forms of intestinal ischemia have been reported postmarketing in patients receiving ZELNORM. Discontinue ZELNORM in patients who develop symptoms of ischemic colitis, such as rectal bleeding, bloody diarrhea, or new or worsening abdominal pain.
Volume Depletion Associated with Diarrhea: In postmarketing experience, serious consequences of diarrhea including hypovolemia, hypotension, and syncope have been reported in patients treated with ZELNORM. Avoid use of ZELNORM in patients who are currently experiencing or frequently experience diarrhea. Instruct patients to discontinue ZELNORM and contact their healthcare provider if severe diarrhea, hypotension, or syncope occur.
Suicidal Ideation and Behavior: Monitor all ZELNORM-treated patients for clinical worsening of depression and emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors, especially during the initial few months of treatment. Counsel family members and caregivers of patients to monitor for changes in behavior and to alert the healthcare provider. Instruct patients to immediately discontinue ZELNORM and contact their healthcare provider if their depression is persistently worse or they are experiencing emergent suicidal thoughts or behaviors.
The most common adverse reactions in 3 placebo-controlled trials of ZELNORM in female IBS-C patients less than 65 years of age: headache (14% vs 10% placebo), abdominal pain (11% vs 10%), nausea (8% vs 7%), diarrhea (8% vs 3%), flatulence (6% vs 5%), dyspepsia (4% vs 3%), and dizziness (4% vs 3%).
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